Agriculture represents the first attempt of human beings of control static resources, that is the bounty of land. It is as old as human civilization on the earth.
In ancient times, there were only three basic needs of human beings, food, cloth and shelter. But due to increased population food needs are also increased, so cultivation of domesticated plants is done.
When cultivation of such domesticated plants is raised for a specific purpose it is called as crops. The branch which deals with the crops is called agriculture. The branch of agriculture which deals with ornamental and fruit plants is called horticulture.
Classification of Plants:
Crops have been classified as cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, oil seeds, fibre producing plants, medicinal plants.
According to the season, crops can be classified as follows:
Sowing of the Kharif crop starts at the beginning of the southwest monsoon, June to July. These crops are harvested during September or October at the end of the monsoon such as rice.
These are the crops of winter season. Sowing of rabi crops takes place at the starting of winter, October to December, crop is harvested in March or April, such as wheat, potato, gram, mustard and barley.
Farmers do very hard work to get maximum production from the fields, for this they use different methods or skills which are called agricultural practices or farm operations. There are certain conditions which are very important for ensuring a high crop yield. In order to grow well and healthy plants or crops, right type of soil, ploughing, seeds, proper handling of animals, proper irrigation methods, use of manures and fertilizers are needed. This includes proper pest control, use of harvesters and threshers. When agricultural practices are carried successfully by using old or modern tools, these are known as farming implements.