Here is your short paragraph on radioactive pollution:
Radioactive substances are considered to be the most toxic among all substances.
This type of pollution occurs as a result of nuclear explosions, besides the use of radioisotopes in medicine, industry and research.
It may be defined as a type of pollution caused -by radioactivity emitted by radioactive substances.
Radioactive pollution may be due to electromagnetic radiation, nuclear radiation, or cosmic radiation.
Electro-magnetic radiation occurs through x- rays, gamma rays, UV rays, visible light, infrared rays and radio waves. However, gamma rays are considered to be the most powerful of these in terms of their impact.
Nuclear radiation pollution occurs when radioactive atoms like uranium, thorium etc. release radiation in the form of alpha and beta particles. Nuclear radiation also occurs when radioactive elements are produced artificially in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators.
Cosmic radiation takes place due to high energy particles invading the earth and its atmosphere from outer space and the sun. Cosmic rays consist of electrons, protons, helium nuclei, hydrogen nuclei ‘ and the nuclei belonging to heavier elements like carbon and oxygen.
The most common and visible form “of the effect of radiation is the sunburn which occurs in humans due to over-exposure to the UV rays of the sun. Radiation causes formation of ions in living cells” which seriously damage the normal functioning of cells; as a result, cells die, causing sunburn, or grow abnormally, leading to cancer.
Persons exposed to 300 to 800 rems of radiation experience a serious form of radiation sickness, while radiation exceeding 800 rems may prove fatal.
A prolonged exposure to low levels of radiation or a brief exposure to very high doses of radiation may lead to genetic mutation causing serious hereditary diseases.
Workers employed in high-radiation areas like nuclear plants must be given adequate protection shields of lead can absorb fatal radiation.
Further, in some hazardous areas, remote- controlled devices like robots are used for handling radioactive substances.
Workers use dosimeter-which measures the level of radiation. A regular monitoring of the levels of radiation is thus possible.