Here is your short paragraph on 3 Different Types of Forest !
A forest is a complex ecological system dominated by trees. Forestry plays a relatively small part in the world’s economy when compared with agriculture or minerals.
Forests cover one-fourth of the earth’s surface but owing to overuse and misuse, presently it covers 15 per cent of the earth’s surface.
Major Types of Forests:
1. The Tropical Rain Forests:
It occupies the low latitude areas near the equator. The forests known as “selva” are almost evergreen throughout the year due to high temperatures (25°C-27°C) and abundant rainfall (200cms). There is no seasonal change to affect the vegetation’s. The important trees are mahogany, ebony, rubber and dyewood. They are economically significant trees of the forests.
2. The Temperate Deciduous Forests:
Temperate deciduous forests are found to the north of the monsoon forests where temperature and rainfall are moderate. The chief commercial species are oak, ash, beech, elm and poplar. They occupy the areas that are unsuitable for agriculture and remote from the centres of development. These forests are mostly prevalent in regions with an annual rainfall of 90 to 130cm, annual temperature of 23 to 27°C. The main areas of temperate hardwood forests are in Northern China, Japan, South and Central Europe etc.
3. The Coniferous Forests:
A broad belt of temperate coniferous forests known as Taiga extends around world on land lying between 50°N and 70°N. They are found in those areas which are at an altitude of 5000 feet to 7000 feet above sea level like the “Alps”.
They have tall, straight, needle like leaves and take their name from cones but few conifers like “larch” are deciduous. They are soft woods and moderately dense. Taiga trees become dwarfed towards northern margins e.g. Pine, fir and larch families.
Lumbering means extraction of timber from natural forests. The growth, development and expansion of lumbering industry depend on type of forest, relief of land, transport facilities and climatic conditions. Lumbering is carried on in Northern Europe, Taiga forests of Siberia and North East America.
Temperate forests are major suppliers of wood in the pulp and paper industries. The trees are smaller and lighter which can be transported over long distances at low cost of transportation. Wide ranges of machinery are used for extraction of timber. These forests are near the major industrial areas of the world where timber and paper pulp products are in demand.
In tropical areas, the climate is hot and moist which leads to luxurious growth of thick evergreen forests. The lack of accessibility owing to dense forests is the main hindrance. Nevertheless wood e.g. ebony, cedar is cut for local & international market and these forests with variable timber are becoming more important.
The action of man has been gradually diminishing the world’s forest resources by burning, cleaning and felling trees for fuel agriculture and industry. Though it was a slow process but now it has been speeded up by population explosion. The forest has been subject to rapid exploitation by man with rapid increase in demand for timber, pulpwood and synthetic fibres.
Thus the story of forestry is one of exploitation and then conservation. To conserve the forests the depleting agents of forests like fire, insects, overgrazing are to be held in check. Another way is prevention of waste and in preparing lumber for use. Large scale afforestation is also necessary for conservation.