The Khaljis have been mentioned variously—sometimes Turks, sometimes Afghans and sometimes as Indian Muslims.
Achievements of Balban were of a personal nature. The Turkish Sultanate depended upon the personality of the Sultan.
Balban, though, himself a successful ruler did not establish a well-organised administrative machinery. All powers were centralized in him. He did not provide adequate opportunity to his sons in the art of government.
No wonder, therefore, that the moment his controlling hand disappeared there occurred a scramble to snatch power. After the death of Balban, power game started. Jalal-ud- Din Khalji, the leader of the Khalji group, who was holding the position of the commander of the army under Kaiquhad, the grandson of Balban, took the best advantage of the situation.
Kaiqubad had lost all his physical ability because of excessive luxury. The Turkish chiefs made Kaiqubad’s son as the Sultan. Jalal-ud-Din proved himself cleverer. He himself sat on the throne of Delhi by murdering Kaiqubad as well as his son and assumed the title of Jalal-ud-Din Firoz Shah. Jalal-ud-Din was 70 years old when he ascended the throne of Delhi. His rule lasted for about 6 years (1290 to 1296).
Policies and Temperament of Jalal-ud-Din:
In the words of Prof. S.R. Sharma, “He was too lenient to be a king in an age when blood and iron alone would matter. He was soon overtaken by a whirlwind of troubles that ended, not only by removing the crown from his head but also the head from his shoulders.”
Although Jalal-ud-Din had become the Sultan of Delhi after shedding a lot of blood, but after becoming the Sultan, he followed a policy of peace—peace with the robbers, peace with the nobles, peace with the Mongols and peace with all others excepting one of Siddi Maula as described in the later part of this answer. His policy of peace led to his downfall. By following the principle of peace, he sacrificed even the routine principles of governing a state. His policy of ‘pardon’ in the name of peace proved disastrous to him.