Paragraphs on the Distribution of Rainfall Across India!
The distribution of rainfall is not even, it depends on the relief of land and cyclonic depressions originating in the Bay of Bengal. There are three rainfall regions.
Area of High Rainfall:
They receive rainfall of more than 200 cm in a year. The area includes the Himalayan region, Ganga plains in Bihar, West Bengal, North eastern part of Peninsular plateau (Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.), Gujarat coast, south of Narmada river, Assam and Purvanchal hills.
Area of Moderate Rainfall: They receive an annual rainfall of 60 to 100 cm. It includes parts of Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Eastern Rajasthan and Northern Plains.
Area of Low Rainfall:
It receives less than 50 cm rainfall a year. Low rainfall in Kutch and western Rajasthan because of no mountains, and not much condensation. Other areas include Southern Haryana, South-west Punjab, Ladakh, Kinnaur and Lahal-Spiti in Himachal Pradesh.
Vagaries of Monsoon:
The monsoon winds are highly variable from year to year. It includes the duration, the changes in velocity of winds and resulting rainfall.
The erratic nature of monsoon rains cause droughts which occur once every five years on an average. It affects 35 percent of the country’s area receiving less than 75 cm of rainfall. The Drought Prone Areas Programme started in 1973 to restore ecological balance. Similarly, irregularity of monsoons cause floods like heavy rainfall, cyclones, elevation of river beds of the Ganga and Brahmaputra systems.