Distribution of land from the rich to poor is what basically land reform means which is based on many legal changes.
Since India has an agrarian economy and the land is not evenly distributed, lots of commotions arise in case of land reforms.
Because of the large mass and commotions, in 1949 the Constitution left the reform tenancy to the state governments. There has been and still continues to be many political and economic arguments in the name of land reforms, that continue till date.
Arguments and Reasons of land reforms:
In the case of land reforms, most of the debate happens for the reason of land scarcity and when it comes to a point that people below poverty need to be assured some piece of land, it gets too stressful. This was sorted out by providing small and large pieces of lands for agriculture. However, based on the kind of land and how fertile it is, productivity varied, but this was not considered and thus land reforms became a hassle. Given the fact that in certain situation smaller land farmers would have yielded more and larger ones less, the larger ones may have to depend on the smaller ones. This created a commotion and uneasiness.
With the legal system being imperfect, land markets do no operate well and this creates more confusion.It is also understood that land reforms are driven by political factors. One of the bases on how a party wins is how land is in demand and how fast it gets moving.
We get to understand that land reforms are basically working on frictions which are caused either due to imperfect property rights or agency costs. Studies show that land reforms impart a negative impact on poverty but have a mixed impact on productivity. Land reforms were found to be positive in states where the required measures were implemented strongly.