Water is the most common energy in the world. It is a substance composed of the chemical elements hydrogen and oxygen and existing in gaseous, liquid, and solid states.
It is one of the most plentiful and essential of compounds. A colourless, tasteless, and odourless liquid at room temperature, it has the important ability to dissolve many other substances.Water is of tremendous significance to all living beings on the planet. All plants, animals and human beings are dependent on water for their survival. In the absence of water there is no life. Thus, it is said that water is life.
Composition and Test of Water:
There are two gases which are the basic elements of water i.e. hydrogen and oxygen. The composition can be determined when electricity is passed through water kept in a beaker. One can find two kinds of water namely sweet and saline. Water is originally sweet to taste but it becomes salty when it encounters mineral salts on land. The sea water, ocean water and lake water are almost all salty.
Sources of Water:
The main sources of water are rain and the melting ice caps. During the rainy season or when a cloud strikes a mountain while flowing across, it comes down as rain. In the same way, when the heat melts the ice on the mountain tops, it flows downwards in the form of rivers. The rainwater is harvested by the people whereas the river flowing water is consumed in other ways by people. The water on the surface of the Earth is found mainly in its oceans (97.25 percent) and polar ice caps and glaciers (2.05 percent), with the balance in freshwater lakes, rivers, and groundwater.
Reservoirs and Carriers of Water:
Seas, oceans and lakes are the natural reservoirs of water as they store water throughout the year. On the other hand, the rivers and streams are the natural carriers of water as they carry water from region to region. Water from the rivers, wells, ponds, canals are generally used by people for a number of purposes.
Use of Water:
The versatility of water as a solvent is essential to living organisms. Life is believed to have originated in the aqueous solutions of the world’s oceans, and living organisms depend on aqueous solutions, such as blood and digestive juices, for biological processes. Water has multifarious use. It is used for drinking, washing, cooking, running of machines, steaming etc. People also use water for gardening. Farmers and other people in the same line of profession heavily depend on water for their crops and plants. Bamboo is also seasoned with the help of water.
As the Earth’s population grows and the demand for fresh water increases, water purification and recycling become increasingly important. Interestingly, the purity requirements of water for industrial use often exceed those for human consumption. On the other hand, water is also a carrier of epidemics. Thus, water from rivers, streams etc must be first filtered or boiled before consumption.