Marxism which can also be called Marxian Socialism or Communism. It stands primarily associated with the name of Karl Marx.
However, it also involves the ideas of Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao. Initially, Marx and Engels had used the term ‘Scientific Socialism’ in their work, the Communist Manifesto (1848).
Later on, in order to distinguish their ideology from the ideas of Utopian socialists, social reformers, bourgeois socialists and others, they decided to adopt the term ‘Communism’ in place of Scientific Socialism. With Lenin, the word ‘socialism’, in-fact ‘revolutionary socialism’ began becoming popular. However, his designation of the party of the workers as the communist party greatly influenced the people in favour of using the word Communism.
After the end of First World War, Lenin himself began using the name Communism. As such the name Communism came to be more popular than Marxism or Scientific Socialism. However, some Marxist scholars still prefer to use the name Marxian Communism or even Scientific Socialism or simply Marxism or Marxism-Leninism.
Since there is no real difference between Marxism and Communism. We can use both these terms.
It is somewhat difficult to give a concrete definition of Communism. Sometime it is used to denote a theory of society in which all property is held in common. Some scholars prefer to describe it as a working class doctrine which stands for making the workers economic and political power-holders in society. It is also described by some as revolutionary socialism
In-fact, Marxism stands for socialism as the end and revolution as the means for securing this end. The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines Communism as “a theory of vesting of property in the community, with each member working according to his capacity and receiving according to his wants.”
Most of the communist scholars define Marxism as the ideology opposed to capitalism. It seeks to eliminate capitalism, which is only a system of exploitation of the poor by the rich. Marxism alone is capable of meeting fully the needs for economic security, social or national development and freedom for self-expression. It aims at the establishment of communist society— a classless and stateless society—through a proletarian (workers) revolution.