Confederation is an association of sovereign independent states. It is made by them for carrying out a definite limited objective through the performance of some mutually agreed limited functions.
These sovereign states form a common government (Con-federal Government) which is formed by their delegates who are regarded as the representatives of the member states of the Confederation.
The confederal government is entrusted with some defined functions. The delegates of the sovereign states who from this government represent their respective states. The member states of a confederation retain their sovereignties independent statuses. These do not merge to form a simple big sovereign state. The simply organise a common con-federal government for satisfying a shared and common need or some needs.
A confederation is organised through a treaty or an agreement which clearly lays down the organisation, powers and functions of the common con-federal government.
In the words of Hall: “A confederation is a union strictly of independent states, which consent to forgo a part of their liberty of action for certain specific objects and they are not so combined under common government a the latter may appear to their exclusion as the international entity.”
In simple words we can say that Confederation or a Con-federal Government is an organisation made by sovereign independent states for the purpose of promoting or securing certain specific goals or performance of some specific functions. The states forming a confederation retain their respective sovereign statuses but these form common con-federal government for securing some common objectives/goals.