For water conservation, effort should be made keeping the following things in mind:
1. Water management means replenishing underground reservoirs and supplying water from excess water areas to water scarcity areas.
2. Replenishing of underground water is the most important aspect of water management. On mountains and hills, the water divide or watershed is covered with vegetation. Rain water easily infiltrates into the aquifer through grasses and vegetation of watershed.
3. In urban and rural areas, rain water, used water or water of domestic drains reaches pits or depressions. Flood water reaches the aquifer through such pits or spreads in pits or depressions in the fields.
4. By suitable treatment of domestic or urban waste, water can be made available for agriculture and industrial use. Pollutants, harmful bacteria and poisonous substances can be removed through treatment of waste.
5. Sea water may be de-salined. By use of solar energy saline water of sea can be distilled so that de-saline good quality water can be made available. The process of desalination of sea water has been adopted in India at some places like Bhavnagar in Gujarat and Churu in Rajasthan.
6. Use of excess quantity of water may be reduced. Reduction of use of excess water is most essential because using more water than is essential is a waste of this valuable resource which cannot be excused at any cost. In our country, a lot of water is wasted due to leakage from pipes or faults of plumbing. Similarly, use of excess water for irrigation has also to be checked.
7. Flood water or excess water in normal flow can be diverted to water scarcity areas. It will not only remove the problem of damages due to floods but also benefit the drought areas.
It has become evident from the above discussion that India being a large country, sufficient natural water resources are available but even then there is water crisis because of lack of proper use of water. The government has been making efforts for its solution and proper utilization of water by framing the National Water Policy or National Water Grid for optimum use of this natural resource so as to face famines and droughts successfully and save people from sufferings for want of water.