Here is your short paragraph on water quality monitoring in India!
Water quality monitoring is defined by the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) as: “the programmed process of sampling, measurement and subsequent recording or signalling or both, of various water characteristics, often with the aim of assessing conformity to specific objectives.”
Water quality monitoring is essential to ensure that the water quality is being maintained or restored at desired level. With the introduction of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and its subsequent amendment in 1981, the prime responsibility has been to maintain or restore the wholesomeness of water.
It was therefore imperative to establish a water quality monitoring network to update on the existing water quality vis-a-vis the derived quality depending on the designated best use. The first water quality (WQ) stations were chosen on the river Yamuna. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) initiated water quality monitoring in 1976-77 with 18 stations of the Yamuna River.
The number of stations gradually increased based on available resources and water quality problems. CPCB has been identified as the Government of India’s agency to serve as a focal point for carrying water quality monitoring under the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) programme of World Health Organisation (WHO) in India.
Currently there are 507 sampling stations out of which 430 are under Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources (MINARS), 50 are under Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) and the remaining 27 are under Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) programme. The sampling locations are judiciously selected on certain laid down criteria and the individual samples are analysed for 22 physico- chemical and bacteriological parameters.
Out of 507 sampling locations, 414 stations are on rivers (146 on main stream of major rivers, 198 on tributaries and 70 on medium, minor and other rivers), 25 on ground water, 38 on lakes and 30 on canals, cracks, drains, ponds and tanks.