Due to policies and activities of man against nature, the balanced climate has become imbalanced.
Quantity of some particular gases has increased in the atmosphere of the earth to such an extent that warmth or heat of earth is not able to come out. Such an effect is called Green House Effect. According to Oxford dictionary-
“As a result of blanketing effect of the man made carbon dioxide in atmosphere, progressive warming of surface of earth is called Green House Effect”.
The main gases causing Green House Effect are carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane and nitrous oxide. Due to absorbing long waves coming out of the earth, a halo created by gases and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) are also included in the category of green house gases. Maximum contribution is due to carbon dioxide (CO2).
CO2 is released in atmosphere by burning fossil fuels like coal and petroleum for different purposes. Besides this, 30 per cent CO2 has increased due to electricity generation centers, emission from chimneys (human volcanoes) of industries, burning coal and minerals, burning of fuels in means of transport and burning of fuel wood for domestic use. 65 per cent of the Green House Effect has increased through them.
Quantity of CO2 was only 320 ppm (Parts per 10 lakh) in the atmosphere during 1965 but it increased to 360 ppm in 1990. At present, concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is about 380 ppm. Increase of CO2 in the atmosphere has been at the rate of about 0.5 per cent per annum. Scientists have estimated on such basis that quantity of CO2 will become double by the year 2050.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is really a natural constituent of the atmosphere. It is not a polluting part in the lower portion of the atmosphere but there IS possibility of climate change and change in warmth balance due to its higher concentration. Scientists think that an adverse effect is caused on biotic life on account of change in temperature of the world during climate change.
Rise in temperature would reduce rainfall and the extent of soil moisture, thereby affecting agriculture. Many places would be affected by drought. Forest area would also reduce due to increase in temperature and decrease of rainfall. As a result of decrease of forest cover, there would be loss of wild life and other creatures. Coastal areas of seas would also be submerged under water due to melting of ice on account of rise in temperature.
According to one estimate, sea water level would rise by one metre by 2050 because of rise in temperature due to Green House Effect. In case man generated concentration of carbon dioxide CO2 is continuous in atmosphere, oceans would have to do maximum absorption. If absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) and decomposition in oceanic water is more than normal, then acidity would increase, resulting in decrease in productivity of maritime ecology system. Because of green house gases, temperature would increase due to decrease of ozone in stratosphere.
Scientists have discovered a new green house gas named trifloromethyl (F3) in recent years. As compared to CO2, this gas possesses about 20,000 times the capacity of absorbing infra-red rays for a duration of 100 years.